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Revista Super Interessante Digital 348 Junho 2015
Arquivos da Revista Super Interessante disponibilizados para consulta. Os editores da Revista Super Interessante liberaram para leitura e consulta, todo o Mundo Das Marcas: To anchor Revista Superinteressante disponibiliza seus A Superinteressante oferece todo o seu acervo de textos gratuitamente! Astronomy Magazine — July COM magazine — Image and article — Mars National Geographic Portugal magazine — Photograph — December Astronomy Magazine — November Astronomy Now Magazine — November Astronomy Magazine — September Magazine Super Interessante — August Ciel et Espace Magazine — July Astronomy Magazine — March Ciel et Espace Magazine — February Calendar of Ciel et Espace — January Astronomy Now Magazine — December Decanter Magazine — Image and article — December Ciel et Espace Magazine — September Astronomy Now Magazine — July Ciel et Espace Magazine — June However, it is assumed that these metaphorical linguistic expressions give us clues on the behavior of our conceptual system, which linguistically reflects conceptual metaphors Oliveira, According to Steen '[ The analysis is based on a corpus, collected from to , of Molecular Genetics and its technologies.
It is important to mention that the corpus is composed by two subcorpora from Brazilian Portuguese, of scientific and popular science. The first corpus includes dissertations and theses, scientific articles published in journals and teaching materials for high school, and the second one is constituted by articles and texts published by the magazines Super Interessante, Ciencia Hoje online and the supplement Ciencia from newspaper Folha de S.
Paulo and Estado de S.
To carry out a proper and accurate work of identification, selection and subsequent analysis of the data, we used a mixed method -linguistic and computational-, proposed by Deigman Metaphor and Terminology Metaphors, according to cognitive theories, are characterized as fundamental cognitive tools in the apprehension and formulation of concepts. They are a cognitive mechanism in which a domain of experience is partially mapped or projected in another domain of experience, and this second domain is partially understood in terms of the first one Barcelona, Terminological metaphors are similarly produced, either in a scientific environment or in the dissemination of a particular science.
However, we realize that when metaphors are used in different discursive situations, and therefore in different textual genres, they must be understood accordingly to their communicative functions and consequently to their production and reception environment. This happens because the function of each one of them is crucial to their formation and, therefore, it assumes the use and update of different cognitive biases in its conception.
We will present, in the following sections, some characteristics of metaphorical use in both domains, which results from the analysis of our corpora4. It is worth clarifying that, although we are not dealing with conceptual metaphors, the model proposed by Fauconnier to explain mappings between the source and target domains is also very functional in demonstrating analogical relations within the metaphorical terminology of Molecular Genetics and another fields of knowledge.
According to the author, 'The mapping between domains is the heart of the human cognitive faculty of producing, transferring, and processing meaning' p. In our case, we will notice that source domains will be represented by concepts from other domains of expertise more stable or by other concepts, based on our physical experience, in accordance with deliberated or non-deliberated Steen, use of metaphors and communicative purposes.
According to Silva , these metaphors are the most important ones from a cognitive point of view and act as important cognitive models. We can observe this case in formations that employ elements like dncora anchor , esqueleto skeleton , familia family , pistola gun and tronco stem.
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Overall, conceptualizations of new scientific facts are made by projections of relations of similarity between concepts of a source domain and a target domain, and those projections are, in most cases, partial. An example can be illustrated by the term estampagem genetica genetic imprinting , shown below, where the mark that is generated by the stamping process is a model for the conceptualization and naming of estampagem genetica, a process through which a gene is marked with its parental origin - a technique used in Genetic breeding or for reproduction of species near extinction: Figure 1.
Partial similarity between concepts from different domains.
However, there are cases in which the coverage of both domains is complete, with a relation of total similarity between the concepts of both fields, source and target. Total similarity between concepts from different domains In this case, Genetics borrows from a specialized domain, Legal Medicine, a model of conceptualization for the identification of genetic profiles, which is widely used in forensic medicine for the identification of suspects.
There are also cases in which motivation for conceptualization and naming is based on observation of simple everyday experiences, such as walking, jumping, and sliding.
Revista Super Interessante Digital - Edição 349 Julho 2015
In the first example, we have a technique that operates with repetitive overlapping of fragments of chromosomes, whose evolution is similar to human walking. Nonetheless, in the second case, the movement is up and down, and looks like a jump. An illustration of the first two techniques is presented below: Figure 3. Techniques chromosome walking5, chromosome jumping, and replication slippage6.
As we can observe, metaphors that build theories Boyd, are predominantly cognitive in the sense that they take part in the construction of a concept, or, in a previous stage, in the understanding and in the creation of a hypothesis about a particular scientific phenomenon.
In general terms, the conceptual assimilation is given by the observation of functional or visual similarities in relation to source concept, such as in the case of DNA fingerprinting or chromosome walking, respectively.
In the following section, we will see that metaphors of popular science are formed from different criteria, and, consequently, serve different functions in the scientific discourse. From scientific to popular science: a continuum When we analyze the naming or the cognitive line through which a term goes from scientific to popular science, we find two different situations: a the original term is erudite and it metaphorizes on this continuum, or b the original term is metaphorical and it remetaphorizes, aiming at adaptation to the communicative situation.
We will see, however, that in these cases the tasks of metaphors are other than heuristics or cognitive, which predominate in strictly scientific environments. Both situations can be illustrated with the same example, for which we will use the term transposon.
We will notice that such 'metaphorical evolution' can be explained due to communication needs that will be imposed on this path. This is because a student, becoming specialized in the field, faces very abstract issues, and metaphors can help in this process of knowledge transmission and acquisition, since they translate more clearly the concept to be acquired, based on a more familiar concept.
Pensava-se que os genes saltadores funcionassem em lugares muito especificos, do mesmo tecido.
However, there is room also for a new metaphor, which occurs when that scientific knowledge is transported to vehicles for popular science: the characteristics of this kind of journalism and the public to which these texts are addressed require a big effort in the communication of science, and it must be more exciting for their readers. The use of scientific terminology would cause serious noise communication, and the pedagogical terminology appears to be very flat, which is why intentional and ornamental metaphors abound in this context.
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In addition to fulfilling a didactic role, they carry a stylistic function, which is very important for this purpose, since it must attract the reader's attention to the generally complex and obscure ways of science. Alem disso, diversas doencas [Online, gratuito e de qualidade Superinteressante ; 31 out.
Introduction Due to their orientation to scientific accuracy, sciences and techniques traditionally used literal language to express more objectively and effectively their theories, and more particularly their terminology.
Super Interessante magazine — Article and Images — December Ciel et Espace Magazine — August With the advent of the Communicative Theory of Terminology, by Maria Teresa Cabre , , and culminating with the Sociocognitive Theory of Terminology, by Rita Temmerman , Terminology is remolded and supported by communication, cognitive, and language theories - additionally some traces of this new model can be found in Socioterminology by Gaudin Metaphor and Thought.
As medidas do crescimento urbano.