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Representations and Intermediality in the Indonesian Horror Survival Game .. I proposed the indigenous term “hantu” to describe local Indonesian ghosts. .. media product (e.g. a film adaption of a comic or novel) (Rajewsky 52). berbagai macam novel cerita horor yang dapat membuat kita merinding menjerit ketakutan yang dikemas dalam alur cerita yang apik dan. NovelPlus is a mobile social reading app and creative publishing open platform. At NovelPlus, you get unlimited access of numerous books/ stories and connect.
Please do leave your feedback and email us at support novelplus. Ulasan Kebijakan Resensi. We believe great stories deserve to be rewarded, so we created a rewards feature to help fund your creativity. Rewards is a new way to join your favorite author's community by sending a gift to support your favorite authors! Happy reading! Lihat detail. Tandai sebagai tidak pantas.
Kunjungi situs web. Lihat lainnya. Begitu banyak fantasi besar dan asmara webnovels di sini! Novel Romance - Ebook. Novel Romantis - Ebook Offline. Free Novels Inc. Scifi, Fiksi, Fantasi, Horror, Romance dan banyak lagi! Mangasan Bahasa Indonesia. Cucunguk Microsystem. The player navigates Linda through the school building with the objective to find her friends and escape the now locked-up building. On her way, Linda fights various ghosts with her IrisPhone befor fighting the Lady in Red that was seen in the beginning of the demo as the 40 See Appendix A: Figure A.
This is for the readability and recognition as an indigenous concept of Indonesian ghosts.
See Chapter 3. Ghostpedia for detailed descriptions of all mentioned ghosts. At the end of the first episode, Linda manages to escape the school, while her classmates and teacher are still missing. After escaping the school, Act 2 starts with Linda trying to find a way out of a courtyard, where she soon gets attacked by a mass of tiny Tuyul ghosts that steal her belongings, including her red bag and her only weapon to ward of ghosts, the trusty IrisPhone. Here, the player experiences a loss of weapons and control for the first time.
He hounds her through the small alleys of the town and Linda finds a temporary weapon: Being chased by Doni, Linda arrives at train tracks that are lined by slum barracks. This leads to Linda hiding in an old train car. Inside the train car, a battle between the two begins. After these dreadful events, Linda finds a new and advanced weapon: This new weapon enables her to retrieve her IrisPhone from the above mentioned tiny tuyul and a big tuyul centeng Guard Tuyul.
Getting outside of the train wreck, a cockcrow suddenly signifies a change of atmosphere and setting. Linda has to pass through a canyon while the sun rises behind her.
At the end of the canyon, she is welcomed by fairytale scenery which appears to be a safe harbor. Birds, insects and frogs can be heard, while two women play soft suling and kacapi45 music — a seemingly safe haven and a very soothing contrast to all sceneries before. Linda finds a number of women lightly dressed, dancing and playing music in the peaceful valley.
A giant female guardian is floating over the scenery and watching from above However, as it turns out after solving an in-game puzzle, the scenery was only a delusion and it becomes pitch black again. Instead of birds and traditional music, now monkeys are screaming and the previously silent 44 The previous behavior of the possessed Doni suggests he was dead beforehand.
He was not killed, but dead all along. Bamboo Flute. Additionally, a rebab violin is to be heard. Linda approaches the seemingly benevolent female guardian, but as soon as she takes a picture of her, the guardian transforms into the previously introduced enemy Pocong Radja and a boss battle follows. Only then the Pocong will vanish and leave Linda alone. This is directly followed by an intimidating appearance of the Lady in Red — who is accompanied by lightning, thunder and intense discordant serunai47 music while dancing the Jaipongan48, a traditional Sundanese dance.
A school infirmary indicated by a sign that reads: Usuha Kesehatan Sekola Inside, one can hear sobbing and upon investigating, Linda finds Shelly, the third of her lost friends, hiding under a blanket in one of the sickrooms. A cutscene shows Shelly asking for the whereabouts of their friends, when she is interrupted by an injured Ms. Siska, who stumbles into the room and collapses. Linda goes outside to find her lost friend next to an old ambulance50 in front of the infirmary.
Ira runs away and is found by Linda in a small house. Linda takes seat on the opposite chair to talk with her best friend. This scene is of particular interest, as it is the only situation, where the camera angle switches to first person mode without the usage of the IrisPhone.
Sidang Para Hantu
This is the marker, where the plot is influenced to result in two different endings, thus offering two pre-determined outcomes. The outcome depends on the combination of questions the player asks Ira, either respecting or displeasing the ghost within Ira or the doll she is holding Within the conversation, it turns out that Ira is possessed by the third ghostly sister of the Lady in Red.
The sound is similar to that of an oboe. Additionally, they promote health care and healthy living. See 3. If Linda enrages the Third Sister or insults the doll Suzie in the earlier conversation with the possessed Ira, the alternate ending will be shown in form of an animated comic-style cutscene. Here, Linda escapes the village and is rescued by some police officers.
When driving home with one of the policemen, suddenly the Lady in Red appears on the street. This leads to a car crash and the death of Linda and the policemen.
Without the usage of her devices, Linda will only see a dark cloudy and endless space. However, if she looks through one of her cameras, she will see a maze-like bamboo barn. Within this augmented realm seen through her device, Linda will come across the giant skeleton of a serpent. When taking a picture of the skeleton skull it comes to life and sends Linda to the limbo sphere. There, she is greeted by the Lady in Red and Linda constrains her with chains as a new obtained power.
The Lady in Red breaks the constraining chains and chants in Sundanese: A new day has dawned. The tree that once shade has come to its end and a new sampling must grow on a harsher plain. Fear not the part you shall play.
For an epic is only written for those with greatness. The sacrifice for your wisdom is only freedom This time it shows how Linda collapses after the battle with the Lady in Red and Ms.
Siska appears. She is still injured and holding a bundle. After a cut, Linda is shown back in society, walking along a street with headphones on. The people she passes by seem to be possessed by ghosts. She is checking her phone and listing to the movement and breaks. In the second version, Linda doubts that the person in front of her is Ira. In that scenario, Ira is raising her arms and ghostly arms appear behind her like wings. Those arms lift her, grab her head and break her spine.
The third version to enrage the ghost is by doing nothing. Unfortunately, I am not proficient in the Sundanese language. Her best friend tells her of her new role with the three sisters and that she will stay with them. Her eyes turn red and her face pale, indicating her completed initiation as the new Lady in Red. As the main protagonist, Linda finds herself in a state of uncertainty during her transitional phase from teenager to adult.
I will elaborate further on her transition in section 3. There is only one incident of a conversation that can be manipulated by the player. When the questions are clicked on, Ira answers. This is a common feature of video games to allow a better personification — If you are not talking, why should your in-game character? Similar to the skin of the other female characters Shelly, Ira and Ms.
This is due to growing popularity of the white- skin-beauty- ideal longed for by many young mostly female Indonesians From an international gaming community 56 Actually, it is the th time she listened to the voicemail, as can be seen on the IrisPhone display. There is a slightly altered version of the true ending, where Linda does not listen to the voicemail of Ira. This minimally different version is triggered, if Ira is killed by the possessing Second Sister in the conversation with Linda.
For research on this topic, see for example: Li et al. Despite this, school uniforms are a usual sight in the Indonesian context. Since all characters, apart from the teacher, wear the uniforms, it signifies their unity — they are all part of one group. The in-game used uniforms are an edited version of the mandatory SMA uniforms.
The skirts of Linda, Shelly and Ira are obviously shorter, while requirements concerning white socks that should be minimum 10 cm above the ankle are fulfilled by Shelly and Ira.
Linda and the boys, Doni and Yayan, wear sneakers in the style of American brand Converse All-Stars, which are common for school uniforms, despite the fact that leather shoes are recommended for SMA students The usage of female characters in school uniforms as protagonists is relatively common in the genre of horror.
The usage of young girls is due to two reasons. How Teenage Girls made a Nation cool Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. Regardless of their seemingly physical weakness, they all have some sort of psychic or supernatural abilities. This leads to the second reason. Throughout various cultures women are often presented as being more sensible to supernatural powers, functioning as mediators for or being possessed by ghosts. Ira and Doni as possessed characters As I have elaborated in an upcoming article on the medial representations of Sundel Bolong in Indonesian horror films Wilger forthcoming , women are often seen as having less spiritual potency as compared to men.
This is said to make them more susceptible to attacks from or possessions by ghosts. Especially women of young age, in stages of transition or trauma, while pregnant or during childbirth, are said to be in danger Bubandt Additionally, mass hysteria or possessions are common phenomena in Indonesia and regularly appear in local news. On May 5th , the Jogjapos, a Jogjakarta newspaper, reported on a case of a dozen primarily female SMA students being possessed, screaming and rolling on the floor in a local mosque, where they were treated with the help of prayers Jogjapos The gamer gets to know Ira as possessed from the beginning.
The demo shows her as standing motionless in the end of a half lit hallway. Later she is standing in the corner of a small room facing the walls. In Act 1, she is possessed by another ghost as soon as she enters the school building. Nevertheless, DreadOut also depicts the possession of Doni, a male character.
In Act 2 the ghost of the Second Sister seizes possession of him. Ira, on the other hand, has a bigger role in the 66 A lot of anthropological work has been done on the interconnectedness of spirit possession and social protest by women in male dominated society.
This new trinity would encompass Linda as the new Lady in Red signified by her eyes turning red , Ira as the vessel for the Third Sister and the Second Sister. As it turns out in the conversation with the possessed Ira, Doni was dead before the Second Sister seized control of his body. This is indicated by slightly different depictions of his movements and behavior in contrast to Ira.
His overall representations recall a zombie-like figure, as he only grunts and stumbles around without thought, while his body gets twisted into anatomically impossible positions68 when falling or attacking Linda. Ira, on the other hand, functions as a vessel and mediator for the Third Sister, as she shows a different character when possessed. Despite being bubbly and talkative beforehand, in her possessed form she is presented as childish, playful and an exaggerated character. She asks Linda to play games including hide-and-seek, I spy and rock-paper-scissors.
Child-games are an often used motif in horror fiction. The childish innocence signified by the act of play is incongruent with the Teenager Ira at the threshold to adulthood.
This creates a dissonance, as it is familiar and incongruous at the same time. This trope of the childish uncanny is also used in the DreadOut DLC, where a female ghost child searches for her doll which came to life Nevertheless, when played by children these strategic thinking is often not yet included in the game play.
Thus, these can be situated within Indonesian frameworks of knowledge. As argued in the chapter 2. Nevertheless, there are some newly invented ones or cross-referencing other mythological beings from other Asian countries.
Appendix B: Ghostpedia lists each in-game existing ghosts and tries to categorize in how far there are derived from local folklore or in how far they are based on imported ghostly repertoires. Rather it should highlight that the character design is specially tailored for DreadOut and relies comparably more on pop cultural horror conventions. Before describing some of the ghosts in detail, it can be stated that the later released DLC mainly draws on Asian and global pop cultural horror creatures.
It is striking that the DLC expands from local repertoires and mainly relies on either newly invented ghosts based on traditional local stories as the Susuk Lady or ghosts from other cultural backgrounds the Nine-Tailed-Fox, Kami71, Zook or ghosts and creatures based on popular culture material. In the following, I will primarily elaborate on the most striking examples of ghosts and creatures in DreadOut. I classify the following beings in this category: These beings are closely inspired by the stories and fictions told in Indonesia.
However, as there are comparable beings throughout Southeast Asia, of course descriptions vary and beliefs mingle. I will elaborate on the most striking and known examples, as some of the ghosts are modified to fit into the video game.
In Javanese belief, those are corpses, completely wrapped in white winding sheets 71 See the Appendix B: In popular depictions, however, the depictions changed a bit, as the Pocong became an often featured ghost in horror movies There, they were depicted as more gory: In popular belief, they were often stated to hop, due to their shroud binding under the feet.
However, in movies, they were often able to float. DreadOut brings this idea to a new level, as the character design of the in-game Pocong ghosts gave them advantages: At least one arm is sticking out of the shroud, mostly to hold a weapon a sickle like the Pocong Warrior , or to be able to grab Linda Pocong Radja, Pocong.
Further, the shroud is ripped open at the lower parts of the body, which allows the Pocong to walk slowly, instead of the — almost comically — hopping. Babi Ngepet is said to be a werepig created by black magic ilmu hitam in Javanese beliefs. This shapeshifter is said to be active at night to steal money and valuable belongings from others. Similar to the beliefs in the Palasik there is a hurdle to make sure the entity can transform back into normal human form. Babi Ngepet is said to have a human partner that wards a candle to keep on burning, while it roams through the night.
If the candle extinguishes, it cannot transform back into the human shape Sugianti Palasik are also believed to come into being with the help of ilmu hitam. During the day they are ordinary women, at night they detach their torso or head form the body to fly around to hunt for children and pregnant women.
They belong to a pan-Asian group of seemingly related female spirits with the same characteristics Another pan-Asian ghost type would be that of the Tuyul, tiny creatures that are said to have the size and sometimes appearance of infants. They are known to be thieves, working for a human master Laranjo et al. This trait of stealing valuables is 72 The list of films include: For further reading on the Krasue see Baumann , and on the similarities of all ghosts see Laranjo et al.
This has to be seen rather as an overarching category and not as a direct description, as their form varies. Demit Pintu is presented as female and shows striking similarities to the Balinese demon queen Rangda, who is said to lead an army of witches and Leyak the Balinese counterpart to Palasik. As Rangda, this Demit has grey long hair, extended thin fingers and pointed teeth. The descriptions mingle and are told in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. They all are dressed in white long gowns, have pale complexions and dark long hair.
Keepers of the Dark is not the main focus of this thesis. Even though I listed and categorized the ghosts and creatures from the DLC77, only the Serpent Mistress, which is the main antagonist in the DLC, will be analyzed due to her role within the whole DreadOut universe. The most important force in DreadOut, apart from the Serpent Mistress, are the ghostly sisters, led by the eldest named mysterious Lady in 74 Laranjo et al.
See Appendix B: Ghostpedia for the corresponding entries. Typical to a survival horror game, the true intensions and drives of the antagonists are revealed little by little as the narrative is structured to leave a lot in the dark.
As it turns out, the duty of the three ghostly sisters is to seal the real and first hidden antagonist, the Serpent Mistress, who is only seen in the subsequent DLC. Siska can be speculated to be the real antagonist, as she helped the Serpent Mistress to break free from the sealing by the sisters. This indicated by Ms. Siska caring a bundle with a peeping-out serpent tail in the real ending of DreadOut. Her appearance in the beginning contains all aspects of a tamed beauty.
Her hair is tightly combed into a bun in Javanese fashion and she is dressed in red ksitea and sarong. In the battle at the end of Act 1, she is showing first demonic features: Her hair is loosened up and wild, her skin turns pale, while her eyes are all-white, her teeth are pointed and fingers long with triangular fingernails.
Upon the final encounter in the end of Act 2 the appearance has rapidly changed: Her overall appearance and behavior becomes messy and twisted: As I have argued in representations of feminity in Indonesian horror movies, now she is signified as an agent of disorder. By her appearance and behavior she is transgressing normative borders of feminity and functions as a monstrous-feminine78 Wilger forthcoming Interestingly, the Lady in Red speaks Sundanese in almost all instances, while all other protagonists are dubbed in the English language version.
Sundanese- speakers mentioned that the Lady in Red tends to use rough or rude language Bahasa kasar Later on she is shown to dance the Jaipongan which is, according to Jean Hellwig Within DreadOut, the two sisters have a less prominent role compared to the Lady in Red.
In many instances they rather function as a plot device, as they inform the player on background 78 The changes within the depiction of female ghosts within horror movies of Indonesia often were in line with discourses on femininity on that time. For the changes within the depiction see Wilger forthcoming On the differentiation of kasar and halus see for example Wilger forthcoming The Third Sister for example, who is never depicted in a physical form.
She is presented as the youngest of the three, possessing objects the doll Suzie and persons Ira. She is the one giving important remarks about the roles of the three sisters. Moreover, the player finds out that the Second Sister possessed Doni and that the three sisters are guardians of this place. In the end, the three sisters together are functioning as the sealers of the Serpent Mistress. Linda faces her as final boss in an old sewer-system in the end of the additional video game.
There, she is depicted as pale white haired woman with yellow irises, while the rest of her eyes are black. In the fight, she is hiding in the water to repeatedly attack and transforms into a more and more serpent-like creature with bigger jaws the more she is attacked by Linda.
As serpents are one of the main themes the indications of her role in the game will be further discussed in section 3. While the other newly invented ghosts were not to genuine, one of the invented ghosts stirred a lot of discussion. It was the Scissor Phantom, the former principal of the abandoned school.
He is to be found in a hidden nursery-room behind a closet. His suppressed obsession with motherhood pushed him to insanity. In Indonesian terms, Scissors and sharp objects are known to be tools to ward off female vengeful spirits like Kuntilanak, Sundel Bolong or Matianak Wilger The alleged baby is a doll residing in a crib in the corner of the room. This character was meant to introduce 80 Nevertheless, upon being enraged in the conversation scene, the Third Sister would kill Ira by breaking her spine.
Reviewer Philip Kollar described the issues of international gamers quite incisive: It's also difficult to know what cultural framework the Indonesian team is working from, particularly in a scenario drawing on long-standing myths from the region. As such, it's difficult to definitively label the scissor phantom transphobic, but it could have been handled more thoughtfully.
Kollar This discussion actually mirrored an on-going debate in gamer communities and game studies on representations of non-normative protagonists in video games. While the concept of third- gender is common in Southeast Asian cultural frameworks, it is often only accepted in certain circumstances and mostly reserved for male-to-female transgender, transvestites or transsexuals.
Indonesian Heterotopia In Act 1 at the beginning of the main game, the player gets introduced to a ghost town surrounded by mist. Non-player character NPC Ms.
A bridge, the only connection to the town, has collapsed long time ago. To proceed, the group has to find a way through the river valley, stumbling down the foggy descent and go back up to reach the other side literally as well as in a symbolic sense. The fact that Indonesia is one of the countries in South East Asia with a culture that accepts transvestites equally among others encouraged us toward making this design decision, and to acknowledge this culture through our range of ghosts.
Bridges can be understood as structures that provide passage or a connection between two spaces, or two realms. As manmade structures they span over rivers, chasms or roads and are an intermediate zone. Since this passage has been disconnected in DreadOut, the player has to descend to the riverbed; signifying that nature, time and the supernatural power of this place have triumphed over the manmade structure.
Mythological and religious bridges can lead to paradise, a connection between this world and that beyond.
Most depictions include a narrow bridge that can only be passed by those who are faithful, while sinners fall off that bridge into hell Biedermann Despite being the connection to paradise, bridges were connected to self-imposed death throughout various cultures.
It is not without reason that bridges count as most popular suicide locations, as those structures are signifying transition and passage The caponized connection shows the gamer that she is not welcome in this misty town. To reach the other side, one has to go down the descent.
This is to make sure the gamer realizes the isolation and the displacement of the environment she is approaching. The town is a heterotopia, a non-place, as Foucault would describe it. It is a forbidden place, where the ghostly inhabitants are all in a state of crisis, since they have not entirely crossed the passage to the afterworld.
Linda and the students who enter are at the edge of becoming adults, thus being in a state of transition see Foucault, Miskowiec The state of crisis and transition is often signified by liminality. Another feature of heterotopias is that they fulfill a certain function within society. In the fictional world of DreadOut, the ghosts have to function as keepers of the dark, sealing the Serpent Mistress, thus fulfilling a duty for societies good.
The break with traditional time gets obvious, when investigating the IrisPhone, which gives no indicator of time at any point of the video game. In the town, time seemingly has other parameters. Some ghosts need to be fought several times, if the weakness is not spotted instantly by the gamer. Thus there is an asynchronism of in-game time and experienced play time, which further contributes to the break with traditional time surrounding the gamer Apart from the collapsed bridge there are other examples that signify heterotopia and liminality.
In Act 2, Linda has to fight the Third Sister, who resides in mirrors. Furthermore, a mirror is used in a cutscene where Linda is attacked by her own reflection, in a way a twisted image of a doppelganger. Besides this, in the DLC Keepers of the Dark, a mirror is a connection to the real world and only way to escape to return to the here and now. As Foucault In the mirror, I see myself there where I am not, in an unreal, virtual space that opens up behind the surface: I am over there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent: But it is also a heterotopia in so far as the mirror does exist in reality, where it exerts a sort of counteraction on the position that I occupy.
Initiation, the Eternal Return and Snakes The basic story is in no way genuine or new. It is a story of initiation. First, in the phase of separation, she is detached from the previous world and her group. The second phase — a transitional stage — is characterized by liminality, an ambiguous state of suspense and uncertainty, where she is susceptible to malevolent forces.
DreadOut - Keepers of the Dark. The narrative is interchangeable with a myriad of other horror fictions. The possibility of choice and subsequent differing outcomes is a mechanic that has been used in many horror survival video games.
Additionally, it is still a popular narratological device in contemporary video games This is also implemented in DreadOut in basic forms, as there are two possible key-outcomes of the video game. The game follows a typical horror fiction scenario: First, a group of high schoolers take a detour and arrive at a place that is outside of time and space with no connection to the outer world; A ghost town which foreshadows the dangers to come by its emptiness and otherness.
Second, the protagonists are separated and the heroine left alone. However, this is where the story departs from traditional storytelling, since there are two possible endings of Act 2.
The title of the true ending indicates another theme of DreadOut: The survival horror video game Until Dawn Sony, for example, offers the gamer to play as each of the eight main protagonists and make critical decisions that influence the gameplay and results in various endings. Another example would be the episodic indie game Life is Strange Square Enix, that is discussing the Butterfly effect by giving the player the game mechanic to rewind time within the gameplay and decide at multiple instances.
The outcome of the story thus highly depends on how the gamer behaves.
Within DreadOut this concept is signified by the ancient symbol of the Uroboros, as a symbol of cyclic returns par excellence. Earliest depictions of the Uroboros are to be found in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, a loosely collection of funerary 91 texts Hornung Moreover, the steam-achievement for the true ending depicts a red snake like slit pupil surrounded by a red Uroboros, hinting at the perpetual aim of sealing the Serpent Mistress in the fictional world of DreadOut.
The Uroboros bears another important archetype as it depicts a serpent. While DreadOut Act offers a lot of serpent ornaments The end of the game shows a serpents tail dangling out a bundle carried by Ms. This is indicating Ms. Serpents have ambiguous symbolic meanings throughout cultures and time. It has associations with life and death as it is often connected to the underworld or realm of the dead, and its ability to rejuvenate by shedding of its skin Biedermann The role of the Serpent Mistress seems to be highly inspired by Nyi Blorong, a mythological figure of Sundanese legends.
Nyi Blorong is a beautiful woman with a human upper body and a snake tale waist down In human shape, she is said to be dressed in a green ksitea with golden details alluding to her real snake form.
Unfortunately, not much is to be found concerning her legend. Volume II: New York: Harper and Row, List of Steam-Achievements. These anthropomorphic beings often draw back to Naga, a mostly benevolent snake deity, demigod or supernatural being in Hinduism, Buddhism and in the Indian symbolic tradition Biedermann While Nyai Roro Kidul is said to reign over all Javanese spirits from her palace in the ocean, Nyi Blorong occupies various positions. In some cases, they are even treated as the same entity, due to their similar descriptions.
The Queen of the South Sea is said to have snake-like abilities, shading off old skin to appear young, wearing green cloth and thus is often connected to Nyi Blorong Wessing The different roles of Nyi Blorong probably appear due to her presence in contemporary Indonesian films The imagination of an alternative reality stands or falls with the game mechanics.
There are many definitions for what game mechanics are in the field of game studies. Sicart Interestingly enough, when DreadOut is judged by its game mechanics it is and is not a survival horror game. While press and the game developers situated the game within a hierarchy of prior existing horror survival game titles, nevertheless there are some essential horror game mechanics missing in the game. There are no limited ammunition or camera shots , no starving battery and no desperate search for resources or a point to save the game.
Other than the main inspiration Fatal Frame or Silent Hill 2, DreadOut offers a three- dimensional setting with no fixed camera angles. Additionally, the player can switch between third- and first person view. In the third person, the camera angle is freely adjustable with the 95 Literally means: As soon as the player uses the IrisPhone or SLR camera, the camera switches to first person perspective, just as it has been in the Fatal Frame series before. Mechanics that fall back on existing gamer repertoires are the WASD-button mapping, where the keyboard is used for inputs concerning movements and interactions with the virtual environment.
Typical for the genre, there is one point in the gameplay, where the control buttons are intentionally inverted to confuse the gamer and give a feeling of losing sanity and orientation. Here, the gameplay norms are transgressed and subverted. This is also intensified by the absence of a video game map throughout the whole gameplay. This is intentionally left out to keep the gamer in a state of feeling lost.
Visual and audio clues are the only guidance, for example the shrieking of a ghost, or lit places as indicators to proceed to these places. The in-game interfaces of DreadOut are relatively reduced. For entering this interface, one has to pause the game and browse through the digital files structured in three sections: As soon as a ghost is banned by Linda, the Ghostpedia will be updated with a picture and short text giving insights on the ghost.
In the end, the Ghostpedia is nothing more than a mechanic of collecting achievements, since it does not help gamers who have no Indonesian contextual knowledge with hints on how to banish a ghost.
Only when the ghost is banned, the Ghostpedia reveals Sundel Bolong's perforated back in a picture. The additional text mentions she gave birth to a baby through that exact hole, which is one of the many versions of the lore surrounding Sundel Bolong.
This vulnerable spot is known in popular Indonesian frameworks of knowledge, while international players can only assume it Ghostpedia for the complete list of encountered ghosts and descriptions. DreadOut Discussions A typical objective would be: While most objectives tell mostly obvious facts, it still gives the player hints on what to search for or to do next.
I hope Ms. Thus, this section, as well as the following, has primarily informational or narratological purposes. The document section collects all textual fragments that can be found by Linda within the game. These are predominantly newspaper clippings. Of interest is that none of these clippings offer information on date, place or time, further supporting the heterotopic atmosphere of the video game.
As the in-game graphics are all in Indonesian, the section adds translations to each fragment upon clicking it. Most of the clippings and found textual fragments describe incidents in the past that had some sort of supernatural component.
There are clipping on a mass possession of students, black magic rituals and stolen babies for example. Each of the textual fragments adds up information on the broader story. Nevertheless the mostly give only vague hints and try to enrich lore. While it sometimes felt like a game of chance alea to snap pictures of the ghosts in the right moment, this mechanic of eliminating enemies is obeying to certain rules.
There are rules of when and which part of the ghost needs to be photographed. A lot of gamers complained about this as they felt it depends on fortune alone to fight certain ghosts successfully. The category of illix or vertigo is evident in the game in so far as gamers voluntarily want to be scared and strive for an experience that is transgressing normative or physical realities.
The gameplay is relatively repetitive. Almost all ghosts are banned by taking several pictures of their weak spots. Additionally, most puzzles function in the same way, as one has to search for certain objects that need to be photographed. For example, the Demo and Act 2 offer similar puzzles, where the basic mechanic is to photograph candles to light them up. If the candles are photographed in the right order, the puzzle is solved. By recognizing patterns, such as giant wings at an entrance or the statues of a winged man and one shaped like a serpent, the player should recognize a prior seen drawing that functions as a mapon how to proceed with this puzzle.
In general, the gameplay is mainly revolving around making careful observations of the surroundings to solve puzzles. The Camera as Weapon The usage of cameras as weapon in the horror survival genre is nothing new. Older titles have very similar, if not exactly the same mechanic.
Fatal Frame Tecmo, Nintendo has the camera obscura to exorcise spirits, however only as long as the camera is loaded with a film. The camera itself can be upgraded. In the horror game Outlast Red Barrel Studios Journalist Miles Upshure has a camcorder to document the activities in an asylum that has been taken over by its patients. Night vision enables him to spot and flee from hostile characters. Nevertheless, his recording time is limited, as he needs to find enough batteries to keep the camera running.
In Daylight Zombie Studios a cellphone functions as map for the hospital environment of the game. Thus, while earlier survival horror titles offered torches, flashlights or other light sources to ward off enemies, contemporary ones rely on newer technology. The IrisPhone enables to see the unseen and functions as a mediator in the classical sense.
Technology as a mediator between realms is a common phenomenon. While the Nineteenth-century spiritualists used photography to ban alleged See Appendix A: Apart from this development, technological processes and structures that are producing virtual environments became more and more complex through the history of computers. One cannot understand the whole inner-life and functioning of machines, even though those engines are embedded into our daily routines.
This favors uncertainty, and alongside technology becomes haunted This is hinting at the alleged power of ghosts over technological devices. Here, the medium functions as a corrupted communication system that transports information to the player. Malfunctions are indicating the presence of enemies, just like in the Silent Hill series Konami, , with its static noise warnings form radios.
As soon as Linda uses one of her devices, the camera angle switches from the third person mode to a fixed first person perspective. This is to take the main mechanic to ward of enemies away from the player to intensify the dread and give a feeling of hopelessness and loss of control. Additionally, the ego-perspective adds another intermedial layer of fear. I experience ghost encounters with the help of a medium in a medium. There are two limbo spheres: There are many pop cultural references made to limbo What characterizes all references is their heterotopic nature and the state of suspense.
The only way to return to the main game and leave this state is by approaching a white, feathered light, which is an obvious reference to various religious and near-death descriptions.
With each time Linda is hurt by one ghost to a certain extent she is send back to Limbo. One can only see that Linda was effectively attacked by ghosts due to her body movements. She raises her arms to her head when attacked mentally, being knocked down or falling to the ground indicates physical force.
She can endure physical or mental damage until a certain point, which can only be guessed by the player, as there are no further indicators.
Some gamers mentioned the resemblance of an angel. This means that each time, it takes the player a bit longer to reach the light and the normal gameplay Thus, this sphere tries to convey the feeling of a liminal sphere that has the possibility to become eternal — just as the catholic role model. Her final transformation and the infusion of power by the Lady in Red happen in this exact sphere of limbo. This is a reversible death which should be seen as a metaphor for failure and not taken literary, since it has no negative consequences for the player Zumbansen The failure of the player is punished by the game with a growing timespan needed to get back into the digital realm of the living.
In general, Death, in this game context, is rather a symbolic threshold, than an irreversible and definite condition. This death-metaphor is used to show the initiation of Linda, as can be seen later within the game, where she gains new spiritual power from the Lady in Red in the end of the last battle where she is again send to this realm.
There are several See Appendix A: Thus, DreadOut transgresses the unspoken video game rule that you have to make sure to stay alive, especially in a survival game.
In the end, the limbo sphere is a mechanic contributing to the broader story of perpetual return and initiation of DreadOut. Typical Conventions in a New Setting DreadOut proves to be a new approach to an established video game genre. While plot, character building, story and many mechanics are nothing new, the unique aspect of DreadOut is for sure its setting and the ghostly enemies. Thus it is an infusion of old nostalgic horror survival conventions in new surroundings. The time and space have changed, as it is — other to many video game titles — set in the present and a mostly unknown game setting to the international audience.
These are the aspects that the development company Digital Happiness stated rightly as one of their unique selling points. The game shines with new ghostly repertoires that enrich the maps of meaning of an international gaming community. On the other side, it offers a source of identification and recognition of patterns for a local Indonesian audience. The ghostpedia was a good tool to implement knowledge for global gamers, nevertheless it was not to sufficient, as it only gave information, as soon as the particular ghost was already banned.
Thus, it was only able to enrich the narrative. If the gamer did not have the needed frameworks of knowledge the ghostpedia was no direct help for understanding how to fight the ghostly enemies.
Peculiar for the video game is the absolute absence of Islamic protagonists, decoration, or ritual, even though Indonesia has the largest Muslim population worldwide For me, formerly focused in Indonesian Horror films, it was surprising, as this marks a departure from perpetuated film formulas.
Throughout the history of Indonesian horror film, a great amount of titles incorporate a religious authority functioning as an agent to restore the religious and See Appendix C: These authorities merely function as deus ex machina van Heeren However, no such aspects are evident in the video game. None of the female students veil themselves, no mosque is present. Only the Pocongs, wrapped in the kain kafan, a white cotton shroud, as well as the graveyard setting refer to Indo-Muslim burial customs.
This absence is surprising in so far, as Islam is the typical religious plot device to ban evil forces featured in popular medial ghost narratives. Even though the Indonesian film censorship boards do not explicitly ask for the usage of religious authority in movies, still, films are increasingly judged against the background of religious morals Wilger forthcoming.
Probably, this absence of Islam is due to video games being still under the radar of Indonesian governmental censorship boards. Thus, while the video games industry grows, the governmental institutions are not yet up track concerning rules or censorships. The intermedial qualities of this game are the rich references to Indonesian-, and online pop culture and fandom, as they borrowed iconography from other media, such as local and international horror films and TV-series.
Intermedial visual references outweigh the other forms of implemented intermediality. Visual references are for example to be found in Act 2 in a little hut. Apart from an important clue in form of a map for solving the puzzle in the safe harbor scenery, there are game objects from different well known horror video games to be found. First, a camera obscura, which is the weapon in the Fatal Frame series.
Second, a typewriter standing on the table next to the camera. This is a nod to the Resident Evil series, where typewriters function as sporadic save- point, where the player can save the game. Third, there is a health-pack lying next to the typewriter. Health-packs are a common resource that needs to be managed with thought in various adventure- and survival horror game titles.
Terror Infinity (无限恐怖)
It mostly resembles the health packs from zombie-shooter Left 4 Dead Valve In the direct surroundings of this video-games- altar, there are two additional objects. This is a weapon that was used in a number of variations in the Castlevania franchise Konami, Apart from this, when one enters this room of reference, an oversized pair of scissor is leaning to the wall.
While these references are aiming at a genre-repertoire that is known by international gamers, there are some that are not directly decodable. Only when the whole food drains out of her perforated back, the verndors realize she is a ghost If they wanted to stop the test, they would have to wave into the camera.
This is satirically presented by a set-up of a skelleton petrified while waving into a camera Apart from the above mentioned examples, there are several other little nods to be found in form of the Steam achievements which are listed in Appendix C. Moreover, Intermediality is enforced on a meta-level, as there is the possibility to share the ghost pictures you took in social media, for example Facebook. This adds a new layer of game-related fandom and intermediality, as this is a media combination that brings fictive ghost-sightings in an online media environment.
My virtual ghostly encounters, documented with a virtual camera, can be shared with my real friends in another virtual environment. Sundel Bolong Makan Sate Here, players can record themselves with the webcam and choose a digital avatar to mirror the exact movements. The avatar of Linda or Matianak can be chosen to reflect your own movements on the PC screen. Moreover, Digital Happiness included interested audience early on with their Indiegogo fundraising campaign.
Thus, they used the internet as an important mediator for DreadOut from the beginning. He or she added their view on the game, played it and transformed it to another more passive entertainment form. One can sit and watch others experience DreadOut.
What has been elaborated in this thesis is that the video game DreadOut consists of an intermedial mix of international pop cultural horror- and video game conventions. It was shown that the medium of video games is a hybrid of global and local discourses, where overarching genre conventions influence local video game productions. It turned out that extended references to and borrowing conventions from other video game titles made the game understandable for an international audience.
These references to earlier games, horror films and popular culture addressed international frameworks of knowledge.
cerita horor indonesia
The gameplay and mechanics remind of earlier titles, especially the Fatal Frame series Tecmo, Nintendo and the inspirations are clearly to be seen. The whole plot and character building is based on survival horror conventions. There is a flourishing online-community of Indonesian ghost hunters and photo- or video material of contemporary ghost sightings. However, what proves to be genuine is the new setting of the Indonesian desa. While the creation of a heterotopic place as setting for horror fiction is nothing new, the representation of Indonesian village surroundings is not too common in the sphere of video games.
However, none of these were made by Indonesians, in Indonesia or offered a setting that is packed with local frameworks of knowledge, perspectives and references. The digital depictions of Indonesian ghosts are an incisive example for local maps of meanings.
Ghost lore was already omnipresent in Indonesian horror movies that are known by Southeast Asian and local Indonesian audiences and a lot of research has been done on these pop cultural sources.
DreadOut on the other end as a newer form of medium offers another way to experience ghosts and the uncanny. DreadOut and its makers capitalized on this, the growing fandom as well as the connection to older titles that arouse nostalgic feelings in many gamers.
Digital Happiness gave interviews form the beginning, kept the backers of the Indiegogo campaign up-to-date and offered material such as rendered character designs to be used for own fan-websites.
This even led to a live action short film made by fans. Additional and more detailed descriptions of ghosts were released and there was even a DLC for the Facerig software, where one can digitally embody a chosen character with the help of a webcam.
Here, players can record themselves with the webcam and neither the avatar of Linda or Matianak will do the exact same movements at the same time on your screen. DreadOut is thus an incisive example for the spreading of local lore in a global popular culture. However, if ghostly variations are unknown and the gamers faced obstacles due to To my knowledge, the only video games apart from DreadOut that are exclusively set in Indonesia are three games.
The other two games are combat related and focus on Indonesia as a trouble spot. Joint Operations: Splinter Cell: Pandora tomorrow Ubisoft, is a secret agent or stealth video game, which is set in Timor Leste shortly after independence.
Each of these games were made outside of Indonesia and offer a lot of questionable representations of the country. As it was with Asian horror film productions, the codes that did not yet belong to international cultural repertoires contributed to the uncertainty and uncanniness, it seems.
This balancing of known conventions and unknown ghosts made it probably interesting for gamers to play. This vast amount of material offers insights into the process of play that researcher normally only get in experimental set-ups. Thus further research on meta-culture can forward the understanding of media reception and negotiations.
Additionally, this thesis can only be seen as one tiny fragment of a hopefully expanding research on Southeast Asian and Indonesian Indie games, as I propose there will be more titles to come from production areas beyond the major game regions in the US, Europe and Japan.
As minimal to none game studies research on Southeast Asian video games is existent, I propose that alongside a growing industry, more research will be done.
Still, this thesis was only scratching on the surface of the cultural repertoires implemented in DreadOut. It was meant to give a first overview and insight into the main game corpus of DreadOut.
An additional detailed work on the Indonesian ghosts and their transformations through pop cultural media is conceivable, as this theme could not be tackled in this thesis in detail. Modernities cannot be thought of without some sort of ghostly repertoires, since, other than western academia often has stated, the projects of modernity did not banish supernatural beings, but encouraged the transmigration of ghosts form narratives of folklore to Modernity here rather describes the historical period, as it is a challenged concept in the humanities and post- colonial studies.
The concepts and representations of ghosts seem to occupy any niches that are characterized by insecurity, ambiguity and liminality. This was shown in this thesis, too, as ghost narratives were transformed to fit into a virtual environment. The heterotopic quality of virtual and digital environments is offering space for ghosts. Ghosts that formerly only populated folktales, myths, and religious texts, had to move into a realm, where their stories of life, death, morals and norms can still be heard.
They did not — of course — abandon their old realms, but still kept up with the times and are still present in our words, mindsets and especially popular culture.
Thus, now it is time to face the newly and changed narratives on those phenomena, including the new representations of ghost narratives, ghosts infusing technology and the ongoing popularity of ghost lore conveyed through new media channels. Indonesia and its pop cultural lore is only one aspect, as these phenomena span over nation borders and belief systems.
While seemingly occupying a niche, those narratives on ghosts never vanished and thus, we need to go with the times, as ghosts do, and research new forms of medial negotiations of this age old lore. References Aarseth, Espen. Narrativism and the Art of Simulation. New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. Edited by Alex Mitchell and Nick Montfort. MIT, Ashcraft, Brian and Shoko Ueda. Japanese Schoolgirl Confidential: How Teenage Girls made a Nation cool.
Tuttle Publishing, Baumann, Benjamin. Biedermann, Hans. Dictionary of Symbolism. Facts on File, Ghost-Movies in Southeast Asia and Beyond. Narratives, Cultural Contexts, Audiences. Manuscript Version Leiden: Brill, forthcoming September Bubandt, Nils. Caillois, Roger. Man, Play and Games. Translated from French Les jeux et les hommes by Meyer Barash. Free Press of Glencoe, . The Classification of Games.
MIT Press, Camper, Brett. La-Mulana, an 8-Bit Period Piece. Wolf, Routledge, Chandler, Daniel. The Basics. Last accessed: Christianity and World Religions. Disputed Questions in the Theology of Religions. Wiley-Blackwell, The Home of Fandom. Comparative Civilizations and Multiple Modernities 2 Vol.
Leiden and Boston: Brill, Frasca, Gonzalo. Similitude and differences between video games and narrative. Gesammelte Werke. Volume XII of collected works. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag, .Want to Read Currently Reading Read.
The Camera as Weapon The usage of cameras as weapon in the horror survival genre is nothing new. This even led to a live action short film made by fans. Her overall appearance and behavior becomes messy and twisted: On the differentiation of kasar and halus see for example Wilger forthcoming She decided to jump over a Appears in: The Culturally Significant Functions of Game and Play The history of video games in correlation with the public and academic debates is one of diverse and often juxtaposed positions.
You can customize the font size, style, background, line spacing, and other reading features according to your preference. Digital Distribution of Games As mentioned above, DreadOut is listed on the social video distribution platform Steam on which various digital games may be downloaded.