H 264 PDF


Mobility for H-Series multimedia systems and services ITU-T Recommendation H was approved by ITU-T Study Group 16 (). Recommendation ITU-T H | International Standard ISO/IEC represents an evolution of the existing video coding standards. Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. Richardson, Iain E. G.. The H advanced video compression standard / Iain E. Richardson. – 2nd ed.

H 264 Pdf

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PDF | We give a tutorial on video coding principles and standards with emphasis on the latest technology called H or MPEG-4 part We describe a basic. The latest video compression standard, H (also known as MPEG-4 Part Without compromising image quality, an H encoder can reduce the size of a . Prior to the H/AVC project, the big recent video coding activity was the MPEG -4 Part 2. (Visual) coding standard. .. reffirodonverm.tk, March

In general, while the overall quality of other codecs has improved, there are some tools to avoid out there. If you're producing with a different tool and not achieving the quality you were hoping for, try encoding with one of the Adobe tools. Second, some older encoding tools do not offer output directly into F4V format.

If F4V format is not offered in your encoding tool, the best alternative is to produce an MPEG-4 compatible streaming media file using the. With this as background, I'll describe the most common H.

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Here I review the most common H. Understanding profiles and levels According to the aforementioned article, Overview of the H. Take a look at Figure 1, which is a filtered screen capture of a features table from Wikipedia's description of H. On top are H. On the left are the different encoding techniques available, with the table detailing those supported by the respective profiles. Figure 1. Encoding techniques enabled by profile source: Wikipedia As you would guess, the higher-level profiles use more advanced encoding algorithms and produce better quality see Figure 2.

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC

To produce this comparison, I encoded the same source file to the same encoding parameters. The file on the left uses the Main Profile; the files on the right uses the Baseline.

As you can see, these do help the Main Profile deliver higher-quality video than the Baseline. Figure 2.

File encoded using the Main profile left retaining much more quality than a file encoded using the Baseline profile right So, the Main and High profiles deliver better quality than the Baseline Profile; what's the catch? The catch is, as you use more advanced encoding techniques, the file becomes more difficult to decompress, and may not play smoothly on older, slower computers. This observation illustrates one of the two trade-offs typically presented by H.

One trade-off is better quality for a file that is harder to decompress. The other trade-off is a parameter that delivers better quality at the expense of encoding time. In some rare instances, as with the decision to include B-frames in the stream, you trigger both trade-offs, increasing both decoding complexity and encoding time.

To return to profiles: At a high level, think about profiles as a convenient point of agreement for device manufacturers and video producers. Mobile phone vendor A wants to build a phone that can play H. So the crafty chief of engineering searches and finds the optimal processor that's powerful enough to play H. If you're a video producer seeking to create video for that device, you know that if you encode using the Baseline profile, the video will play.

Accordingly, when producing H. An enhanced lossless macroblock representation mode allowing perfect representation of specific regions while ordinarily using substantially fewer bits than the PCM mode. Picture-adaptive frame-field coding PAFF or PicAFF allowing a freely selected mixture of pictures coded either as complete frames where both fields are combined together for encoding or as individual single fields.

This design is conceptually similar to that of the well-known discrete cosine transform DCT , introduced in by N. Ahmed , T. Natarajan and K.

Rao, which is Citation 1 in Discrete cosine transform. However, it is simplified and made to provide exactly specified decoding.

This design is conceptually similar to that of the well-known DCT, but simplified and made to provide exactly specified decoding. A secondary Hadamard transform performed on "DC" coefficients of the primary spatial transform applied to chroma DC coefficients and also luma in one special case to obtain even more compression in smooth regions.

A quantization design including: Logarithmic step size control for easier bit rate management by encoders and simplified inverse-quantization scaling Frequency-customized quantization scaling matrices selected by the encoder for perceptual-based quantization optimization An in-loop deblocking filter that helps prevent the blocking artifacts common to other DCT -based image compression techniques, resulting in better visual appearance and compression efficiency An entropy coding design including: Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding CABAC , an algorithm to losslessly compress syntax elements in the video stream knowing the probabilities of syntax elements in a given context.

Loss resilience features including: A Network Abstraction Layer NAL definition allowing the same video syntax to be used in many network environments. One very fundamental design concept of H.

The combination of the higher-level parameters is called a parameter set. An active sequence parameter set remains unchanged throughout a coded video sequence, and an active picture parameter set remains unchanged within a coded picture. The sequence and picture parameter set structures contain information such as picture size, optional coding modes employed, and macroblock to slice group map. Frame numbering, a feature that allows the creation of "sub-sequences", enabling temporal scalability by optional inclusion of extra pictures between other pictures, and the detection and concealment of losses of entire pictures, which can occur due to network packet losses or channel errors.

Switching slices, called SP and SI slices, allowing an encoder to direct a decoder to jump into an ongoing video stream for such purposes as video streaming bit rate switching and "trick mode" operation.

A simple automatic process for preventing the accidental emulation of start codes , which are special sequences of bits in the coded data that allow random access into the bitstream and recovery of byte alignment in systems that can lose byte synchronization.

Supplemental enhancement information SEI and video usability information VUI , which are extra information that can be inserted into the bitstream to enhance the use of the video for a wide variety of purposes. Auxiliary pictures, which can be used for such purposes as alpha compositing. Support of monochrome , , , and chroma subsampling depending on the selected profile.

Support of sample bit depth precision ranging from 8 to 14 bits per sample depending on the selected profile. The ability to encode individual color planes as distinct pictures with their own slice structures, macroblock modes, motion vectors, etc. These techniques, along with several others, help H. Some reference hardware design work is also under way in the Moving Picture Experts Group.

The above-mentioned are complete features of H. A profile for a codec is a set of features of that codec identified to meet a certain set of specifications of intended applications.

This means that many of the features listed are not supported in some profiles. Various profiles of H. Profiles[ edit ] The standard defines a set of capabilities, which are referred to as profiles, targeting specific classes of applications.

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This allows a decoder to recognize the requirements to decode that specific stream. Profiles for non-scalable 2D video applications include the following: Constrained Baseline Profile CBP, 66 with constraint set 1 Primarily for low-cost applications, this profile is most typically used in videoconferencing and mobile applications.

It corresponds to the subset of features that are in common between the Baseline, Main, and High Profiles.

Baseline Profile BP, 66 Primarily for low-cost applications that require additional data loss robustness, this profile is used in some videoconferencing and mobile applications. This profile includes all features that are supported in the Constrained Baseline Profile, plus three additional features that can be used for loss robustness or for other purposes such as low-delay multi-point video stream compositing.

The importance of this profile has faded somewhat since the definition of the Constrained Baseline Profile in All Constrained Baseline Profile bitstreams are also considered to be Baseline Profile bitstreams, as these two profiles share the same profile identifier code value.

Extended Profile XP, 88 Intended as the streaming video profile, this profile has relatively high compression capability and some extra tricks for robustness to data losses and server stream switching. High Profile HiP, The primary profile for broadcast and disc storage applications, particularly for high-definition television applications for example, this is the profile adopted by the Blu-ray Disc storage format and the DVB HDTV broadcast service.

Constrained High Profile with constraint set 4 and 5 Similar to the Progressive High profile, but without support of B bi-predictive slices. High 10 Profile Hi10P, Going beyond typical mainstream consumer product capabilities, this profile builds on top of the High Profile, adding support for up to 10 bits per sample of decoded picture precision.

High Profile HiP, Primarily targeting professional applications that use interlaced video, this profile builds on top of the High 10 Profile, adding support for the chroma subsampling format while using up to 10 bits per sample of decoded picture precision. High Predictive Profile HiPP, This profile builds on top of the High Profile, supporting up to chroma sampling, up to 14 bits per sample, and additionally supporting efficient lossless region coding and the coding of each picture as three separate color planes.

Scalable Parallel Programming Applied to H.264/AVC Decoding

For camcorders, editing, and professional applications, the standard contains four additional Intra-frame -only profiles, which are defined as simple subsets of other corresponding profiles. These are mostly for professional e. As a result of the Scalable Video Coding SVC extension, the standard contains five additional scalable profiles, which are defined as a combination of a H. For the scalability tools, a subset of the available tools is enabled.Video decoding is an example of an application domain with increasing computational requirements every new generation.

Fast motion estimation within the H.264 codec

These techniques, along with several others, help H. Naming[ edit ] The H.

Two profiles were developed in the MVC work: Multiview High Profile supports an arbitrary number of views, and Stereo High Profile is designed specifically for two-view stereoscopic video. Finally, an outlook is given on parallelization opportunities in the upcoming HEVC standard. The file on the left uses the Main Profile; the files on the right uses the Baseline. However, since Flash Player can handle any level supported by any of the supported profiles, you don't have to worry about levels when producing for Flash Player playback on a personal computer.

Accordingly, when producing H. Now the question becomes, How much harder is the file to decompress and play? I've compared the quality of H.